A course of antibiotics could relieve chronic back pain for up to 40% of sufferers in a discovery that has been hailed "the stuff of Nobel prizes."
Scientists claim that using pills to treat infection rather than surgery can bring an end to the misery of constant lower back pain.
Thousands of people in the UK who suffer from chronic back pain could benefit, if the results are confirmed.
Around four million Britons can expect to suffer from chronic lower back pain some time in their lives.
Doctors usually suggest exercises and anti-inflammatory drugs for lower back pain.
Research by the European Spine Journal has shown that almost half of lower back pain cases could be caused by bacteria.
Infection was previously thought to play only a small role in back pain. But nearly half the slipped disc patients studied by the scientists tested positive for bacterial infection.
A group of 162 patients who had suffered from chronic back pain for more than six months following a slipped disc, and had signs of bone swelling, were either given a 100 day course of antibiotics or an inactive placebo drug.
The antibiotic treatment proved effective in 80% of cases, leading to significant reductions in pain and disability.
In their paper the scientists, led by Dr Hanne Albert, from the University of Southern Denmark, wrote:
Antibiotics should be considered as a treatment option for this special subgroup of patients with CLBD (chronic low back pain).
More confirmatory work in other populations and studies on improved protocols as well as the background science should be encouraged.
Commenting on the results, neurosurgeon and spinal expert Peter Hamlyn, from University College London hospital, said:
The discoveries.. require us to reconsider our understanding of chronic low back pain.
One of the commonest causes of disability in our communities, lost working days and ongoing pain, chronic low back pain is an international plague. More work needs to be done, but make no mistake this is a turning a point.. It is the stuff of Nobel prizes.
Microbiologist Professor Laura Piddock, from the University of Birmingham, stressed that antibiotics should only be used in cases where a bacterial cause of pain had been identified.
Inappropriate use of the drugs could help breed resistant bacteria.
– Professor Laura Piddock
For this reason, physicians are encouraged to liaise with their consultant microbiologist colleagues for the most appropriate tests to carry out.