Former Bosnian-Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has been sentenced to 40 years in prison after a UN court convicted him of multiple counts of war crimes - including genocide - relating to the 1992-1995 Bosnian war.
Here is a brief guide to the conflict which claimed an estimated 100,000 lives.
The start of the conflict
- In 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former republic of Yugoslavia, with a multi-ethnic population of Bosnian Muslims, Serbs and Croats, was recognised as an independent state after a referendum.
- However, Bosnian Serbs, who had opposed the move for independence and boycotted the referendum, rebelled with the support of the Yugoslav People’s Army and Serbia.
- Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic created the independent Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Hercegovina (renamed Republika Srpska) with its capital in Pale. He also installed himself as head of state.
- War broke out in April 1992 with a systematic campaign of persecution of non-Serbs by Bosnian Serb troops.
- The troops attacked the city of Sarajevo killing thousands.
- Thousands of Muslim men and boys were slaughtered by Bosnian Serb forces in the town of Srebrenica in July 1995 in the single worst atrocity of the war.
- The UN-declared "safe haven" had come under attack by forces led by the Bosnian Serb commander Ratko Mladić.
- Some of the Serb forces disguised themselves as UN peacekeepers and gave false promises of security to encourage the men of the town to surrender.
- The town’s women and children and elderly were also forced from their homes. Some women were also victims of rape committed by the Bosnian Serb forces.
- The war ran until November 1995 when a peace deal was agreed.
- The remains of many of the victims of the Srebrenica have been recovered from mass graves and reburied.
Arrests and trial
- Bosnian Serb leader and war crimes suspect Radovan Karadzic was arrested in Belgrade in 2008.
- He has been posing as a doctor of alternative medicine using a false name.
- Karadzic's war crime trial at The Hague opened in 2009 and a not-guilty plea was entered on his behalf as he refused to address the court.
- Karadzic's general Ratko Mladic was arrested in Serbia in 2011 after 16 years on the run and is also on trial at The Hague.