Scuffles broke out on the streets of Berlin on Saturday as neo-Nazi demonstrators clashed with anti-fascist protesters.
Some 500 far-right supporters took part in a march honouring the 30th anniversary of the death of top Nazi politician Rudolf Hess - a close ally of Adolf Hitler.
The group had planned to march to the site of the former Spandau prison, where Hess died in 1987 - but they were blocked by around 1,000 counter-protesters and local residents, who chanted "Nazis out" and "you lost the war".
Police in riot gear kept the two groups apart and officials said the day passed largely peacefully, aside from a few hotspots where violence broke out as the opposing sides came face to face.
Strict conditions had been imposed on the neo-Nazi event - including a ban on glorifying Hess or the Nazi regime; no drums, weapons, or torches; and only one flag permitted per 25 participants.
Anti-Semitic chants or any clothing bearing the swastika were also explicitly forbidden.
It comes after clashes between far-right groups and anti-fascist protesters in Charlottesville in Virginia, USA.
That had prompted 64-year-old Jossa Bentja to join the counter-protesters. She said her own parents had been forced to live under the Nazis - and said she feared the "rats were coming out of the sewers".
"(President Donald) Trump has made it socially acceptable," she said. Neo-Nazi groups stage a march each year on the anniversary of Hess's death. His death was ruled a suicide by hanging, but some sympathisers insist he was killed.