Dog owners will be required by law to have their pets microchipped from next year.
Rural Affairs Secretary Richard Lochhead confirmed compulsory microchipping would come into force in April 2016 - the same time as the measure is introduced in England and Wales.
Mr Lochhead said the move would be a "huge help" in reducing the number of lost or abandoned dogs in Scotland.
A public consultation last year on responsible dog ownership revealed more than 83% favoured making the system compulsory.
Mr Lochhead announced the introduction of compulsory microchipping during a visit to the Dogs Trust in Glasgow.
The charity, which has already fitted chips in more than 10,000 dogs, is offering the service for free at its rehoming centres and at mobile clinics throughout the country.