The SNP say the paper puts pressure on the UK Government to open talks about the transition process before the vote in 2014.
"Today's paper provides the people of Scotland with a clear road map as to how Scotland would make the journey from a devolved system of government with the levers of power retained at Westminster, to a nation in which the powers of our national Parliament are complete and in which the people are sovereign."
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The £2 million lab will be at the centre of a core sciences programme, which the University hopes will meet local and national demand.