Heart and lung transplants involve major surgical procedure and are rarely performed. During the surgery, a person's diseased heart and lungs are replaced with the heart and lungs of someone who has recently died.
The NHS says heart and lung transplants are only carried out when all other treatment options have been exhausted. A 2010 study that assessed the long-term outcomes of people who have had a heart-lung transplant found that:
Teenager Liam Gawthorpe says he's turned down a double heart and lung transplant to focus on enjoying quality of life without gruelling surgery. The 18-year-old, who runs his own pet shop, admits it is a brave decision, but one that he knows is right for him.