Drivers of diesel vehicles could face restrictions on going into city centres such as Nottingham and Derby under Government proposals to improve air quality.
The proposed change would affect six cities in areas where air quality targets for 2020 are expected to be missed.
Birmingham, Nottingham and Derby are the cities in the Midlands included in the proposals.
The plans by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) encourage local authorities to restrict access to cities for certain types of cars to try to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions.
Nitrogen Dioxide is estimated to be responsible for 23,500 deaths in the UK each year, while a further 29,000 are killed by particulates - which are tiny particles of soot.
Air pollution causes 50,000 premature deaths in the UK every year and figures suggest Leicester has the worst air quality of any town in England and the 9th worst in Europe.
Today Leicester Friends of the Earth join other organisation to launch Healthy Air Leicester to campaign for action to rectify this situation.
Many of us don't give much thought to the air that we breathe, but scientists from the University of Leicester are doing just that to learn how pollution affects us.
In a world-first experiment they've mapped the whole of the city by plane, to see how fumes and emissions are carried around. They hope the work will mean we can lead cleaner, healthier lives. Chris Halpin reports.
Project leader Dr Roland Leigh, of the Earth Observation Science group, explains to ITV News Central reporter Chris Halpin how the specially adapted Spectrometer mapped air quality around Leicester.
The device gave a reading for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) levels between the ground and the plane - which was flying at around 900m.
Each reading corresponds to an area of 6 metres by 100 metres at ground level.
The project leader behind the new pollution maps being used in the city of Leicester said it is the first time in the UK anyone has been able to use airborne technology to map pollution levels. He said:
Results from a new pollution-detecting technology, which has been installed in Leicester city, could help with environmental decisions in the future, scientists said.
The technology uses a "heatmap" to show pollution levels in the area, showing levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) across the city.
As part of a project "developing solutions to the national problem" of improving overall air quality, scientists have also used a device to map air quality around the city.
Monitoring visible light, it measures how much is lost at specific wavelengths absorbed by nitrogen dioxide.
The device was previously used as part of the CityScan project, to measure pollution in Leicester, Bologna, and London during the Olympics.
Leicester has become the first city in the world to have its air quality mapped out using an airborne pollution-scanner.
This bird's eye image shows how pollution levels vary across the city.
Images were taken by researchers from the University of Leicester from a survey plane flying 900m above the city's roads, parks, industrial estates and houses.
The European Commission is calling on the government to find a solution to improve air quality.