Shoppers in the North West are the most frugal in the UK, a new survey has found.
The poll by Barclaycard Freedom Rewards and Brunel University found that 79% of people in the region were making more effort to save money now than they did five years ago.
This was the highest figure recorded across the country, and researchers say efforts to save money have had a significant impact on shopping habits across the region.
Some 41% of respondents said they no longer went to buy groceries without first making a detailed shopping list, while 38% said they were visiting more shops than ever before in a bid to find the best deals.
Almost two thirds of those surveyed (65%) said they always shopped around to check prices before deciding how to spend their money.
Meanwhile, one in four said they were now more likely to choose local, independent stores instead of high street chains.
More than eight in 10 (85%) said they owned at least one loyalty card, with users most commonly spending their points to make their everyday budget go further, rather than treating themselves.
Dr Dorothy A Yen, a retail expert from Brunel University, said: "It's been fascinating to look at how modern life and the economic climate have impacted on our shopping habits.
"As a nation, we've evolved into incredibly sophisticated shopping experts. Some of us are clearly savvier than others but with the wealth of deals and loyalty incentives out there, we've all developed a system that works for us."