The UK needs a four-runway airport either at Heathrow or Luton if it wants to compete with other European hubs such as Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam, a report by a think tank said today.
The best option would be four runways immediately west of the current Heathrow site in west London, the report from Policy Exchange said.
A four-runway airport at Luton in Bedfordshire would be the next-best option.
The report did not rule out an extra, third runway at Heathrow but said Thames Estuary airport plans, as supported by London Mayor Boris Johnson and by architect Lord Foster, were not practical.Also ruled out were four-runway airports at Gatwick or Stansted.
The report also called for a complete ban on the noisiest of aircraft at all times, a complete ban on night flights and steeper landing angles to cut down on noise.
The report was written by Tim Leunig, chief economist at the liberal think tank CentreForum.