Heathrow says the charges, which need to be approved by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), will help pay for £3 billion of investment, including the opening of the new Terminal 2 next year.
Airport bosses said that errors in previous passenger forecasts meant that Heathrow had lost out on around £650 million of charges over the last five years.
The CAA had based the previous level of charges on estimates that Heathrow would handle 78 million passengers a year by 2013, but the airport is only handling around 70 million.
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Hundreds of passengers were ordered to leave the terminal building and flights grounded after passengers suffered difficulties breathing.
Council leaders today called on the government to provide extra money to help resettle the youngsters in the capital.
An eyewitness said: "It was very unnerving. It was just after 12pm and there were suddenly police vans and cars everywhere."