The Atomic Weapons Establishment at Aldermaston in Berkshire could be prosecuted by the Health and Safety Executive over a fire two years ago.
One worker was left with burns to his arm and face after a blaze broke out in a building where explosives were housed.
The firm is due to appear before Reading Magistrates Court on August 6, for the first hearing in the case.
– Andrew Jupp, AWE’s Managing Director
AWE plc deeply regrets the occurrence of the fire at our Aldermaston site. Ensuring the safety of our staff, neighbours and local community is AWE's highest priority.
"Following the fire, we quickly initiated a thorough, independently-led investigation and published the resulting report in June 2011.
"The specific operation being carried out at the time of the fire was immediately suspended and will not be re-started until a safe alternative process has been agreed with our Regulators.
"In view of the impending legal action, any further comment would be inappropriate at this time."