David Cameron, Nicola Sturgeon and the Princess Royal, along with the German President Joachim Gauck, joined descendants of those who fought at the Battle of Jutland for a centenary service to remember the thousands who died in the largest naval battle of the First World War.
During the service at St Magnus Cathedral on Orkney diary entries of those who served on both sides were read out, while a German and a British cadet lit a candle in a sign of hope.
Princess Anne represented the royal family at the memorial after the Duke of Edinburgh cancelled his trip on doctor's advice.
ITV News reporter Sally Biddulph reports:
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The Duke of Edinburgh has a "minor ailment" but is "fine", despite not attending the commemorations marking the Battle of Jutland, his son-in-law has said.
Vice-Admiral Sir Tim Laurence, who is married to the Princess Royal, said Philip was "very frustrated" at not being able to attend the event on medical grounds.
The Duke, who turns 95 next week, is understood to have no plans to cancel any other forthcoming engagements, and has not attended hospital.
"He's very frustrated and disappointed that he can't be here and we're all very sad that he won't be with us," Sir Tim told Sky News.
"He's fine. He just has a minor ailment and I think at his age it would be unwise to go and stand in a windswept cemetery for a long period at that stage. "
Philip's next publicised engagements are on Thursday.
David Cameron, Nicola Sturgeon and the Princess Royal have arrived for a centenary service to remember the thousands who died in the Battle of Jutland.
British and German military bands played and crowds lined the street as the Prime Minister arrived at St Magnus Cathedral on Orkney with the First Minister.
Descendants of those who fought in the largest naval battle of the First World War are also at the service, marking 100 years to the day since British and German ships engaged in a 36-hour conflict off the coast of Denmark.
Anne represented the royal family at the memorial after the Duke of Edinburgh cancelled his trip on doctor's advice.
German president Joachim Gauck was also in attendance.
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So-called Islamic State militants have been using "several hundred families" as human shields during the Iraqi army's assault on Fallujah, according to reports received by the United Nations refugee agency.
Around 3,700 people, including 624 families, have fled the city over the past week since the offensive to retake it from IS began.
"We have reports of casualities among people in the city centre in Fallujah due to heavy shelling, including seven members of one family on May 28," UNHCR spokesman William Spindler said.
"There are also reports of several hundred families being used as human shields by ISIL, in the centre of Falluja."
Around 1,300 people are staying in the al-Iraq camp in the Ameriyat al –Falluja district. The UNHCR understands some 500 men and boys aged over 12 are held for security screening.
Iraqi troops attempting to reclaim the city of Fallujah have repelled a four-hour attack by so-called Islamic State in the south of the city.
The attack started at dawn on Tuesday in the Nuaimiya area, according to special forces officers.
The officers said IS militants used tunnels, deployed snipers and sent six explosives-laden cars to hit the troops, but they were destroyed before reaching their targets.
The previous day Iraqi troops captured almost 85% of the ground in the same area when they first entered the city.
Fallujah, which has been under IS control for more than two years, is 40 miles west of Baghdad and is the last major city in western Iraq still under control of the group.
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