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Neuroscientist Dr Jay Alberts of the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute led a team of scientists who carried out brains scans on 26 Parkinson's patients using a technique called functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI).
FcMRI flags up the functional connectivity of different brain regions by measuring changes in blood flow.
The patients underwent sessions on exercise bikes three times a week for two months as part of the study.
Some of the patients pedalled at their own pace, while others were forced to cycle faster by motors fitted to their bikes.
Dr Albert said the scans showed that cycling faster boosted the nerve connections between the primary motor cortex and thalamus - which is vital to co-ordinated movement and impaired in Parkinson's patients.
Patients with Parkinson's disease may be able to reduce their symptoms by emulating Tour de France winner and Olympic hero Bradley Wiggins, new research suggests.
Scientists in the US say their study shows cycling leads to greater connectivity between brain regions linked to the disease.
Vigorous "forced" pedalling was key to the changes, which were associated with improvements in both co-ordination and balance, scientists at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute claim.
The research lends support to anecdotal evidence that cycling alleviates the symptoms of Parkinson's, which causes shaking, rigidity and slow movement.