The Education Secretary said: "Ed Miliband made a cynical calculation to put his political interests ahead of national security and humanitarian intervention.
"He and his party are going to have to live with it...the consequences rest with the Labour party and those who voted for them it rests on their conscience."
The International Development Secretary was "gutted" to miss the commons vote on Syria and claimed she and a junior foreign minister, Mark Simmonds, were unable to hear the bell notifying MPs of the start of voting.
Justine Greening dodged questions on whether or not she had deliberately missed last Thursday's vote on military intervention and claimed her presence would not have made any difference to the outcome.
A Labour source has said a second vote on Syria is unlikely, adding that it was the Government that took it off the agenda. They would not say if Ed Miliband regrets that.
It is an odd position: last week they wanted a vote on Syria after the UN reported. Now they are happy to accept the Prime Minister's decision to ditch any further votes.
Tensions over the Commons vote on Syria could be seen today when Jim Murphy MP asked Defence Secretary Philip Hammond under what circumstances there could be a second vote on the issue.
Hammond told Murphy the question was "a bit rich" as his actions had "given rise" to the current situation.
Government anger with Labour surfaces over Syria. Defence Secretary Philip Hammond tells Jim Murphy it's a "bit rich" for him to ask when there could be a second vote.
Almost three-quarters of Britons believe it was right for MPs to oppose the use of UK forces in military action against Syria, a poll suggests.
The survey also found a similar proportion did not think David Cameron's decision to rule out UK intervention following his surprise defeat in the Commons last week would damage the "special relationship" with Washington.
But almost half of those polled thought the result of the vote would "hurt Britain's reputation and standing in the world", the ICM study of 1,000 adults for the BBC found.
Boris Johnson told ITV News that the Prime Minister would be right to hold a second vote on military action on Syria if there was "absolute proof that the Assad regime" had been involved in chemical attacks and there was "a limited and a calibrated response" put forward.
The Mayor of London added: "It is very, very hard to stand aside when you have people being killed in large numbers by chemical weapons".
Shadow business secretary Chuka Umunna said if the Prime Minister "changes his position and comes back to Parliament seeking Parliament's sanction for military action, then as a responsible opposition then of course we would have to consider that but the same criteria would apply".
The Deputy Prime Minister, who was in favour of military action in Syria, accused Labour of using last week's House of Commons vote to score "party political points", after the Government was defeated.
Nick Clegg said: "I don't think anyone should pretend that deciding to enter into military action to deter the further use of chemical weapons is simple. It's not simple, it's not straightforward.
"My own view is that the Labour Party seemed to take this as an opportunity to score party political points as much as rise to the challenge and the gravity of the issue.
"From time to time there are just issues - and this is clearly one of them - where I actually don't think the British people are particularly interested in political point-scoring at Westminster.
"They really just want their representatives to look at it in Parliament in a sober and thoughtful way, which is by and large what happened last Thursday in the debate."