Qatada was taken in a green SUV, escorted by a 12-car convoy containing masked anti-terrorism police, to the nearby military State Security Court in a sealed-off street on the outskirts of the Jordanian capital Amman, the Associated Press reported.
Abu Qatada's father, Mahmoud, and an unidentified relative stood at the entrance of the court building, but were not allowed to enter.
"I have nothing to say, except that my son is innocent and I hope the court will set him free," Qatada's father told AP.
The Prime Minister said he was "absolutely delighted" when Qatada left the UK today, saying his continued presence here had made his "blood boil".
The Prime Minister said that the lengthy deportation process and repeated appeals had been "immensely frustrating", and that plans were under way to simplify the process through the Immigration Bill.
Asked about suggestions the UK should withdraw from the European Court of Human Rights, he said: "It is important that Britain meets proper international obligations - and we do - but frankly when it comes to these cases I don't rule anything out in terms of getting this better for the future."
He also said that the Conservatives would set out "the right steps to deal with this" in its next manifesto.
Mr Cameron said: "I don't pre-judge what they will be but the one thing I am certain of is that if you have someone in your country, who has come here and threatens your country, who you can deport to a safe country, you should be able to do that and it shouldn't take so long.
"You will read in the next Conservative manifesto the steps that will be necessary to make sure that in future you can deport people who threaten your country more quickly.
"That's the key outcome and I have always said this: that whatever it takes to deliver that outcome, the next Conservative Government will do."
Yvette Cooper MP, Labour's shadow home secretary, welcomed the news that Abu Qatada had been deported to Jordan.
She said: "This is extremely welcome - it means Abu Qatada can stand fair trial in Jordan for the serious terrorism charges he faces there, so justice can be done.
"There have been continual delays in the legal process both in this country and in Europe that have been deeply frustrating for all Governments. We must ensure that delays like this do not last for so long in future and that the system is reformed to make it faster.
"The Government has done the right thing by continuing to pursue this until Abu Qatada could finally be deported. The Home Secretary has been right to get further guarantees from Jordan and we should welcome the series of agreements from the Jordanian Government too."
Home Secretary's tenacity and determination are what has got rid of #AbuQuatada our judicial system has questions to answer for sure
Theresa May deserves huge credit for finally removing Abu Qatada. Now we must change the law so future cases don't take so absurdly long
Radical cleric Abu Qatada has arrived in Jordan after being deported from the UK, a prosecutor said.
The Prime Minister said he was "absolutely delighted" that Abu Qatada had been deported to Jordan.
He said: "This is something this government said it would get done and we have got it done and it's an issue, like the rest of the country, that has made my blood boil.
"That this man who has no right to be in our country, who is a threat to our country, and then it was so long and so difficult to deport him. We've done it. He's back in Jordan and that's excellent news."
The Prime Minister has said that deporting radical cleric Abu Qatada was a "priority" for the government.
His plane left RAF Northolt at 02:45 BST to take him to his home country of Jordan, which he has not visited in 20 years.
Deporting Abu Qatada was a priority for this govt,there was a clear plan+a right and stubborn refusal to bow to what many thought inevitable