Children who do not get into a grammar school will find themselves in "lower ability peer groups", which, in turn, "affects their chances of succeeding at school".
Professor Simon Burgess from the University of Bristol, who led the research, also said the inequality could be explained by the calibre of teaching in both types of schools.
Selective schooling systems sort pupils based on their ability and schools with high ability pupils are more likely to attract and retain high quality teaching staff.
This puts pupils who miss out on a grammar school place at an immediate disadvantage.
In addition they will be part of lower ability peer groups, which also affects their chances of succeeding at school.
Grammar schools widen the gap between the richest and poorest in British society, according to a joint study from three universities.
Pupils who fail to get into a grammar school are put at an "immediate disadvantage", research from the University of Bristol, the University of Bath and the Institute of Education, University of London found.
Researchers from the universities studied the pay of more than 2,500 people born between 1961 and 1983.
The average hourly wage gap between the top 10% and bottom 10% of earners was £16.41 in areas with a grammar school system in place.
But in similar areas that had gone comprehensive, the equivalent earnings gap was £12.33.
The pair's words are set to be studied by sixth-formers, along with the tweets of Caitlin Moran and speeches by Grayson Perry.Read the full story ›
Teachers are preparing for a fresh round of strikes at the end of June in a long and bitter row with the Government over pay, pensions and conditions.
Members of the National Union of Teachers (NUT) could walkout this summer if the dispute is not resolved.
The union will debate whether to stage fresh walkouts at their annual conference, being held in Brighton, which seeks co-ordinated national strikes in the week beginning Monday June 23 if "significant progress" is not made in ongoing talks with the Government.
The move comes just weeks after the NUT staged a national walkout and offers the prospect of widespread disruption to schools in England and Wales in the summer term.
Drugs education for children as young as 10 should be broadened, one of the Government's chief drug advisers has said.
Professor Simon Gibbons, a member of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), told a public hearing that more needs to be done on drugs education in primary and middle schools.
The subject of drugs does not form part of the National Curriculum at primary level, although it is at a school's discretion to include it within the teaching of personal, social, health and economic (PSHE) education.
Mr Gibbons, a professor of medicinal phytochemistry at University College London (UCL), said:
"I would certainly like to see more done on the education done in primary settings.
"I have two young daughters who are eight and 10 and the elder one is certainly at that age when she is starting to be aware of some of these materials.
"At the primary and middle school phase there's not enough information on drug education for 10, 11, 12-year-olds - that's something we should be pushing for."
Education Secretary Michael Gove has praised the work of playwright William Shakespeare and claims he was "another grammar schoolboy made good".
The Tory Cabinet member's comments come days after he criticised the "ridiculous" numbers of Old Etonians in Prime Minister David Cameron's inner circle.
Mr Gove told the Commons pupils could be put off an author for life if they were poorly taught.
MPs heard there is evidence that awful teaching of the works of Shakespeare could deter youngsters from English literature for a long time.
New figures show that nearly half of the money paid out in student loans is never going to be repaid. But the Business Secretary Vince Cable has told ITV News the government has nothing to apologise for. ITV News reporter Claire Stewart has the details.
Education Secretary Michael Gove has said state education in the UK was "bog standard" for decades, but a "relentess" focus on teacher quality has improved schools.
Gove, who has made no secret of his desire to see state schools run more like independents, said
"tectonic plates" have started to shift in this "historic period in state education" as the schools have improved more last year than at any time in Ofsted's history.
"We need to thank the nations teachers. We have the best generation of English teachers ever working in English classrooms," he said.
Gove's speech comes amid a public row with Labour and Lib Dem MPs following the decision to replace the chair of Ofsted, Labour's Baroness Sally Morgan
A number of teachers have reacted in fury online on the ITV News Facebook page over Labour plans to introduce so-called 'licences to teach'.
Some people think that teachers only work from 9am till 3pm. The average teacher works 100-110 hours a week as I have to, and that is every week including holidays.
We have to plan, mark and assess around 500-600 pieces of work per week, that's on average. Planning and assessment takes up about 40-50 hours of my week every week.
I've worked in my job for 12 plus years and I must admit the teachers I work with are outstanding, also excellent. But - agency teachers not quite sure about - get paid far too much and have no consideration or care for the children / really not fair on the school or the children.
They are already making the teaching profession almost impossible. The amount of hours we put in trying to manage the work load and little chance of actually having some sort of life is depressing enough. Leave us to do what we love and are passionate about - help children achieve their potential.
Join the debate on the ITV News Facebook page.
Chris Keates, general secretary of the NASUWT, the largest teachers' union, has said that a licence to practice in teaching "should apply to headteachers and not just teachers", adding that it should also apply to state and independent schools.
It is deeply debilitating and demoralising for teachers that any attempt to have a public debate about developing the teaching profession and the quality of teaching inevitably is hijacked by commentators and presented as a system to 'root out incompetent teachers' and present our public education system as failing.
No group of workers, least of all teachers, deserves to be treated in this way. No wonder resignations from the profession are high and recruitment to teacher training is falling.