The UK Border Agency is to be scrapped and brought directly under ministers' control for the first time in five years.
Cameron warned immigrants against expecting "something for nothing" in Britain, announcing controls on access to benefits and healthcare.
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg has called for a bail-like system of "security bonds" to tackle visa abuse in the UK.
Business Secretary Vince Cable said the Immigration Bill was not a "dog whistle" response to UKIP's surge in support.
While Angela Eagle, Shadow Commons Leader, argued that the Queen's Speech failed to deal with the "issues that people face day-in-day-out".
The immigration measures in the Queen's Speech don't tackle important issues on exploitation and illegal immigration.
We support many of the measures promised, though of course we will scrutinise the detail, but it appears their impact will be limited.
The Government is still not tackling the exploitation of foreign workers, leading to the undercutting of local workers.
– Yvette Cooper, Shadow home secretary
There is nothing to improve enforcement of the national minimum wage, no action on agencies recruiting only from abroad, nothing to improve training for local workers for sectors recruiting heavily from abroad, no action to extend the gangmasters licensing legislation, and nothing to deal with slum landlords using overcrowded housing to recoup labour costs.
Measures expected to be announced when the Queen sets out the Government's legislative programme include:
- An Immigration Bill giving strengthened powers to deport foreign criminals by preventing the abuse of human rights laws. The Bill will also enable more substantial fines to be imposed on businesses exploiting illegal labour.
- A National Insurance Contributions Bill implementing the Budget commitment to cut the cost of recruiting new employees.
- A Consumer Rights Bill covering goods, services, digital content and unfair contract terms.
- A Deregulation Bill to cut red tape for firms looking to grow.
- A Social Care Bill to cap care costs, so pensioners will not have to sell their homes.
- A Pensions Bill to create a flat-rate pension, which ministers claim will encourage saving and help women who have had long career breaks.
UK Independence Party leader, Nigel Farage, and the Daily Mirror's associate editor Kevin Maguire spoke to Daybreak about the e-petition which aims to stop mass migration form Bulgaria and Romania.
Mr Maguire said: "We've got to be very careful in this debate because passions get enflamed, and people actually get the wrong end of the stick, it fans the flames of extremism".
Speaking about the number of people on benefits, Mr Farage said: "Nobody should be able to claim benefits until they have been here for five years and obeyed the law. Wouldn't that be a more logical way of going about this?"
A poll conducted by BBC Newsnight suggests that the lifting of work restrictions on Romanians and Bulgarians will have little impact on life in the UK, as many are not planning to move to Britain.
The majority of the people surveyed by the independent team said they would only migrate to Britain if they had a concrete job offer.
Dave Landau, from the campaign group 'No One Is Illegal' told Daybreak the 'Stop migration' petition being discussed by MPs today "is a dreadful thing", he added, "I think it's scaremongering, spreading fear and also it's discriminatory."
He said it was unlikely there would be a big influx of migrants from Bulgaria and Romania to the UK, as their countries of preferred choice were Italy, Spain and Germany.
Home Secretary Theresa May said the UK is not the "only" country which will be opening its borders to Romania and Bulgaria in 2014.
Today MPs will debate an e-petition entitled 'Stop mass immigration from Bulgarians and Romanians in 2014'.
It is not the case that the UK is the only country that is suddenly going to find its borders open on January 1 2014 to Romania and Bulgaria. There are other significant countries within the EU such as Germany, Austria, France who will also be opening their borders to Romania and Bulgaria at the same time.
An e-petition on calling for the government to stop mass immigration from Bulgaria and Romania in 2014 will be debated by MPs today.
- Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia and Estonia all joined the EU in 2004, giving them unrestricted access to the UK's labour market
- Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU in 2005, but restrictions were put on the number who could move to Britain, those restrictions will be abolished in 2014 and cannot be extended
- Once the restrictions are lifted all new comers will be entitled to claim benefits, there are currently an estimated 1.5 million people seeking work within the two countries
MPs will debate a petition relating to immigration from Bulgarians and Romanians in 2014 today.
The e-petition entitled 'Stop mass immigration from Bulgarians and Romanians in 2014' has hit the 100,000 signatures mark.
In 2014 EU restrictions are set be removed, allowing nationals of Bulgaria and Romania free movement to the UK.
The move is similar to the one that granted access to around 600,000 Polish immigrants to enter Britain in recent years.
A councillor has resigned from the Conservative Party after making "thoughtless and extremely foolish" comments about immigrant school children.
John Cherry claimed Pakistani children would fail to "rise to the top" and some nationalities were "uncertain" what hard work is about.
The Chichester councillor was responding to proposals by a South London academy to open an Eton-style boarding school in the West Sussex countryside. He said:
My remarks about Durand Academy, as reported in the Mail on Sunday today, were plainly wrong. They were thoughtless and extremely foolish. I unreservedly apologise and withdraw them. I very much regret the distress this must have caused.