Lighting on thousands of miles of motorways, trunk roads and city streets has been turned off or dimmed at night in order to save money and cut carbon emissions, according to an investigation by the Sunday Telegraph.
The survey found that 3,080 miles of motorways and trunk roads in England are now completely unlit, with a further 47 miles - including a busy stretch of the M1 between Luton and Milton Keynes - dark between midnight and 5am.
And some 98 of 134 councils questioned (73%) said that they had switched off or dimmed lights, or were planning to.
All of England's 27 county councils have turned off or dimmed street lamps in their areas, said the paper, on the day when the clocks went back, plunging the country into darkness earlier in the evenings.
The survey found that 70% of the motorway network is now unlit at night, saving the Highways Agency some £400,000 last year and reducing carbon emissions.