Egypt's Former President Mohammed Morsi will join 14 other Muslim Brotherhood members in court to face charges of inciting the killing of protesters.
The charges relate to clashes that occurred outside the presidential palace in December 2012.
Security forces are reported to be on high alert following calls from supporters of Morsi for major protests.
Mr Morsi was ousted by the military in July this year after protests against his rule.
But a sit-in protest by his supporters that followed was itself violently broken up by the military, leading to the deaths of hundreds of people.
The ousted Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi has arrived at the venue for his trial, Egypt's news agency reports.
Egypt's state prosecutor has charged the ousted president Mohamed Morsi and 14 other Muslim Brotherhood members with "committing acts of violence, and inciting killing and thuggery", the state news agency reports.
The charges relate to violence in which around a dozen people were killed outside the presidential palace last December, after Morsi had ignited protesters' rage with a decree that expanded his powers.
The state news agency said the defendants were accused of mobilising Brotherhood followers to forcibly disperse the protesters after the security forces rejected Morsi's orders to do so.
The charges against Morsi include inciting his followers and assistants to commit crimes of premeditated murder and use violence and thuggery.
Egypt's former leader Hosni Mubarak is likely to walk free within a week having faced the prospect of execution just weeks ago.
Mr Mubarak's lawyer confirmed to ITV News that all charges had been dropped, although he refused to appear on camera.
The news emerged as it was announced that the country's first democratically-elected but now deposed president, Mohamed Morsi, could face new charges.
ITV News International Correspondent John Irvine reports from Cairo:
Egypt's prosecutor has ordered the ousted president Mohamed Morsi to be detained for 15 days pending an investigation into allegations he incited violence, ITV News' Middle East News Editor Lutfi Abu-Aun reports.
On Thursday, Egyptian judicial authorities extended Morsi's detention period for 30 days in a separate case.
He is currently being held at an undisclosed location on allegations of murder and spying.
Clashes have broken out in central Cairo after supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi came under attack as they marched to the Interior Ministry, Reuters reported.
Supporters of the new military-installed government reportedly hurled stones at the marchers and threw bottles at them from balconies.
Police in turn then fired tear-gas canisters at the pro-Morsi demonstrators.
Egyptian authorities have postponed a move to force out supporters from the ousted president Mohamed Morsi from two protest camps to "avoid bloodshed" in the capital Cairo.
An official, quoted by the Associated Press, said the plan to disperse two sit-ins was shelved after it was leaked to the media.
A dawn advance by security forces would have set the stage for clashes with thousands gathered in support of Mr Morsi, who was ousted in a July 3 coup.
Followers of ousted President Mohamed Morsi have continued to make their vast presence known in the Egyptian capital despite the threat of removal.
Thousands of supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi continued to gather in protest camps in Cairo overnight, despite threats to forcibly remove them.
On Sunday, a senior security source told Reuters troops will be deployed around the sit-ins by dawn "as a start of procedures that will eventually lead to a dispersal".
Members of the Muslim Brotherhood and supporters of deposed Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi continue to gather in Cairo despite threats of removal.
Egyptian police are expected to start taking action early today, according to security and government sources.