Britain's Professor Peter Higgs was today announced as joint-winner of the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics.
The European Union's three presidents collected the Nobel Peace Prize today in Oslo.
Nobel Prize winner Sir John Gurdon told ITV News he was dissuaded from studying science at Eton by his teacher.
European leaders are in Norway to collect the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize but Prime Minister David Cameron will not attend.
The European Union was awarded the prize for fostering peace on a continent ravaged by war.
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg will represent Britain at the ceremony in Oslo, where Nobel committee chairman Thorbjoern Jagland will present the prize worth $1.2 million (around £750,000).
German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Francois Hollande will be among the leaders at the ceremony which comes before a summit on the financial crisis later this week.
The President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, has invited David Cameron to the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony:
The National Security Council (NSC) has congratulated the European Union on the awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize.
– NSC Spokesman Tommy Vietor
The United States congratulates the European Union on being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. This award recognizes Europe’s commitment to the principles of democracy, freedom, and human rights, as well as its efforts to advance these values across the world.
In addition, it reflects the spirit and dedication of the Europeans to coexist peacefully in a society that draws strength from the diversity of its people, its languages and its cultures. We have no stronger partner than Europe and are pleased to see it recognized for its achievements.
David Cameron made no comment on the European Union's Nobel Peace Prize award bucking the trend of other EU leaders who were quick to express their pride.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel said the selection of the EU was a "wonderful decision" contrasting the Prime Minister who remained silent on the subject.
A spokesman for Mr Cameron said: "I don't think we're intending on putting anything out".
However, the Foreign Office did comment on the award, saying: "This award recognises the EU's historic role in promoting peace and reconciliation in Europe, particularly through its enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe".
Eurosceptic MP Bill Cash has hit out at the decision by the Norwegian Nobel Committee to award this year's peace prize to the European Union. He said:
It is like giving an Oscar to a box office flop. It is very sad that the Euro establishment are so desperate to bolster the image of an institution, now ridden with riots and dissension, that it should be given this formerly prestigious prize.
You only have to look to Croatia, the Balkan conflicts and the total breakdown over the Gulf and Iraq war to see how European nations fell out with one another over basic objectives. The prize itself was set up to mark the reduction of standing armies but the EU has persistently pursued the idea of a European army.
Former Chancellor Lord Lamont has criticised today's decision to award the Nobel Peace Prize to the European Union, saying it was 'preposterous and absurd.'
I think today's decision to award the Nobel Peace Prize to the EU at a time when people in the streets of Athens are dressing up as Nazis seems preposterous and absurd.
It is the most ridiculous decision since the Nobel Prize committee gave the peace prize to Barack Obama when he had been president for two minutes. If the committee cannot think of an individual to whom they should award the prize, better not to give one at all.
The European Union was set up after World War Two to ensure the such a conflict would never afflict the continent again. It is based on the principles of 'peace, stability and prosperity' and began purely as an economic union. Here are some of the key dates in the European project:
- 1951: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxemburg and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Paris, creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
- 1957: France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg sign the Treaty of Rome establishing European Economic Community (EEC)
- 1974: The European Council is created as an informal forum for heads of state and government
- 1979: The Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) is formed, linking seven national currencies
- 1991: Maastricht Treaty sets the timetable for a single European currency by 1999. The EC is renamed the European Union
- 1999: The Euro is launched replacing national currencies in 11 countries
- 2007: 27 EU countries sign the Treaty of Lisbon, critics say the treaty erodes democracy by moving power away from national governments
- 2009: Greece doubled it deficit estimate, triggering the still raging eurozone crisis
Tony Blair has congratulated the European Union on winning the Nobel Peace Prize:
The European Union is one of the defining concepts of the last half century.
Amidst the turmoil of today we would do well to remember that when the Second World War ended Europe was in ruins.
What followed has been over 50 years of peace and progress.
The rationale for Europe today has changed but the ideal of a Europe united and working together remains constant.