Men have been warned not to take a pair of popular vitamin and mineral supplements after research showed they can dramatically increase the risk of life-threatening prostate cancer.
Overdosing on the mineral selenium by taking supplements raises the chances of developing high-grade cancer by 91%, US scientists have found.
Vitamin E pills also boosted the risk of aggressive cancer, more than doubling it for men lacking selenium, according to researchers from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle.
The researchers believe selenium can turn toxic when present in the body at excessively high levels.
Nice's decision to withhold a breakthrough prostate cancer drug is a "cruel twist" as it comes "just days" after a study confirmed its success, campaigners have said.
Prostate Cancer UK called on Nice, who vet the cost effectiveness of medicine for NHS patients, to change its "post-chemo" policy on new drugs.
Enzalutamide is already licensed for those who've had chemotherapy but this trial will hopefully establish a robust base of evidence to demonstrate that it should be available beforehand.
This is good news but sadly won't help the one man an hour who dies of prostate cancer at present.
We need to see drugs like enzalutamide available sooner rather than later, and so it's a cruel twist that this study comes just days after Nice ruled out the drug for men who have already had chemotherapy and the only other drug available at this stage, abiraterone.
A lack of evidence is behind the NHS' decision to withhold a breakthrough prostate cancer drug from patients who have already been treated using another new generation drug, Nice said.
A spokeswoman for Nice said the committee were unable to "draw any conclusions" about what would happen if "milestone" enzalutamide was used by prostate cancer sufferers who had also taken abiraterone.
In the trial data provided by the manufacturer of enzalutamide none of the patients had received previous treatment with abiraterone, therefore the committee was not able to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of enzalutamide after previous abiraterone treatment, and this is reflected in the recommendations.
We would welcome any additional data the manufacturer of enzalutamide can provide.
Prostate cancer medicine hailed as a "milestone" breakthrough may not be available to every patient after a revision of the drug guidelines, according to the NHS.
Men in England who have already been treated with a new-generation cancer drug would not be eligible for Enzalutamide, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice).
Nice, the public body which decides the cost-effectiveness of medicines for NHS patients, said the new drug should not be used by patients who had already taken abiraterone.
Enzalutamide blocks molecular signals driving prostate cancer and improved survival by 30% in men who had not undergone chemotherapy.
A further 80% of men with advanced cancer had the progression delayed, even if the tumour had failed to respond to other treatments.
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Prostate cancer will become the most common cancer in the UK "in the next 15-20 years".
"All the statistics say that prostate cancer is currently the most common cancer among men, it's about as common as breast cancer. Within the next 15-20 years it will be the most common cancer in this country.
"For the majority of the men who have it, they don't have any symptoms. That is the very reason why you need to go to the doctor, particularly when you get close to 50 and see if the test is right for you."
Only 10% of GPs discuss prostate cancer with their male patients, often failing to initiate the discussion, a poll found.
The survey of 500 GPs across the UK found many men were risking their health by not discussing the cancer with their doctor, Prostate Cancer UK found.
The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age, typically from a man's fifties onwards.
Each year, around 41,000 men in the UK are diagnosed with prostate cancer and 11,000 die from the disease.
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Professor Mark Baker, director of Nice's Centre for Clinical Practice, says that the "surveillance" protocol for men with slow-growing prostate cancer would involve "regular check-ups" instead of "radical treatment".
Prostate cancer can be very slow growing and whilst many men will have a cancer that won't cause them any harm in their lifetime, nearly 10,000 men still die every year in England and Wales.
The updated guideline includes a number of new recommendations on the swift diagnosis and treatment of different stages of the disease and a new protocol for men who choose active surveillance, which involves regular check-ups to see if and how the cancer is developing, rather than radical treatment.
- Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men
- It accounts for more than a quarter of all male cancer diagnoses in the UK
- It is predominantly a disease of older men (aged 65–79 years)
- There is a higher incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer in men of black African-Caribbean descent