Incursions by Russian jets into Turkish airspace have prompted a stern response from Nato's most powerful ally.Read the full story ›
A Russian warplane violated Turkey's airspace for a second time on Sunday, said the Turkish Foreign Ministry.
The ministry summoned the Russian ambassador late on Monday to protest against the violation.
Turkish jets were scrambled after a Russian warplane violated Turkey's air space on Saturday but Russia blamed a "navigational error".
The Cold War adversaries believe in different solutions to end Syria's civil war.
Turkey's belief is that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has to go for the conflict to end whereas Russia backs the Syrian leader. Turkey, a Nato member, has called the Russian strikes a "grave mistake".
Nato has told Russia to stop its attacks on civilians and Syrian rebels and concentrate on fighting Islamic State.
Nato said in a statement: "Allies call on the Russian Federation to immediately cease its attacks on the Syrian opposition and civilians, to focus its efforts on fighting ISIL, and to promote a solution to the conflict through a political transition."
Allies strongly protest these violations of Turkish sovereign airspace, and condemn these incursions into and violations of NATO airspace. Allies also note the extreme danger of such irresponsible behaviour. They call on the Russian Federation to cease and desist, and immediately explain these violations.
Allies call on the Russian side to take all necessary measures to ensure that such violations do not take place in the future.
Nato has told Russia to immediately stop its attacks on Syrian rebels and civilians and instead focus its efforts on fighting Islamic State.
The alliance also called on the Russians to "cease and desist" what it described as an "irresponsible" and dangerous violation of Turkish airspace during strikes.
The statement from Nato ambassadors followed an emergency meeting in Brussels on the situation.
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Britain needs "absolute clarity" that Assad will not be part of Syria's future, the Foreign Secretary said.
Philip Hammond rubbished plans put forward by Russia and Iran for elections, saying Syria was "a million miles away" from being able to hold a free and fair vote.
In a country where 250,000 people have been killed and 12 million people have been displaced, half of them outside the country - how can you talk about free and fair elections?
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David Cameron has said that Russia's decision to take military action in Syria to support Bashar al-Assad's regime is a "terrible mistake".
Russian President Vladimir Putin's decision could cause further instability for the region, the prime minister told the BBC's Andrew Marr Show on Sunday.
They are backing the butcher Assad, which is a terrible mistake for them and for the world. It's going to make the region more unstable.
Russia has been conducting air strikes in Syria, including Islamic State targets.
However, Cameron said that Russia had also been carrying out air strikes on other targets.
"Most of the Russian air strikes, as far as we've been able to see so far, have been in parts of Syria not controlled by ISIL (Islamic State), but controlled by other opponents of the regime," Cameron told the BBC.
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At least 39 civilians have been killed in Russian air strikes on Syria in the past four days, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.
The monitoring group said the number included eight children and eight women.
In addition to civilian deaths 14 fighters are also reported to have been been killed in the attacks, 12 from the so-called Islamic State group and two from the Al-Qaeda-linked Nusra Front.