The actions of the Turkish air force in shooting down a Russian warplane earlier are viewed as an "unfriendly act", the Russian defence ministry has said.
The ministry also said it is working on a "package of measures to respond to such incidents" and has issued a formal protest to Turkey's defence attache.
Syrian state TV says that Turkey has "shown its support of terrorism" by shooting down a Russian warplane earlier today.
The Turkish military repeatedly warned the Russian fighter jet before it was engaged and shot down by a Turkish aircraft, a US Army spokesman has said.
Speaking at a press conference, Colonel Steve Warren said that he could confirm Turkey's account that it had warned the Russian pilots 10 times before shooting the Russian SU-24 warplane down.
Colonel Warren said the US was "reviewing data" to determine precisely where the incident took place.
But initial indications from US analysis suggest that the incursion lasted a matter of seconds.
Russia claims the aircraft was in Syrian airspace, but Turkey insists it was in its territory.
US-led coalition airstrikes against Islamic State targets in Syria and Iraq are going ahead "as planned" despite the shooting down of a Russian fighter jet, reportedly in Turkish airspace.
US Army Colonel Steve Warren, a spokesman for the US-led military campaign against the so-called Islamic State, sometimes refered to as Isil, said:
This is an incident between the Russian and the Turkish governments. It is not an issue that involves the (U.S.-led coalition operations).
Our combat operations against ISIL continue as planned and we are striking in both Iraq and Syria.
Turkmen forces in Syria claim they have shot dead the two pilots of a Russian fighter jet downed by Turkey near its border.
A deputy commander of a Turkmen brigade said the pilots were shot in the air as they descended with parachutes.
Alpaslan Celik, a deputy commander in a Syrian Turkmen brigade said: "Both of the pilots were retrieved dead. Our comrades opened fire into the air and they died in the air."
The commander was speaking near the Syrian village of Yamadi as he held what he said was a piece of a pilot's parachute.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has cancelled his planned trip to Turkey after the downing of a Russian warplane near the Syrian border.
Lavrov, who was due to arrive on Wednesday, urged Russians not to visit Turkey, saying the threat of terrorism was as great as in Egypt, where hundreds of Russians were killed when IS bombed a passenger plane.
An expert on the Russian Military says that President Putin's response to the downing of a military jet near Turkey's border with Syria is likely to be limited.
Igor Sutygin told ITV News: "The very wording that he has used... probably shows that he is not going to heat it up too much."
Mr Sutygin said Russia would want to resolve the situation quietly because it was in the middle of "uneasy" negotiations with Turkey on a new gas pipeline, and the French President François Hollande was due to visit Moscow soon.
The Prime Minister of Turkey has said his country had the right to respond if its airspace is violated despite repeated warnings.
In a speech in the capital Ankara, Ahmet Davutoglu said the world should know that Turkey would do "whatever is necessary" to guarantee the country's security.
It comes after a Russian jet was shot down by the Turkish military near the country's border with Syria.
Turkish officials said the plane was targeted after violating Turkish air space, a claim denied by Russia's defence ministry.