Children at St Joseph's RC Primary School in Washington have planted a hundred 'Rocket Seeds' that have been on the International Space Station with astronaut Tim Peake.
They have also planted a hundred seeds that haven't been in space, so they can determine whether keeping seeds in zero gravity makes a difference to the quality of seeds.
It is hoped that the research being carried out by the Royal Horticultural Society will give an indication as to whether humans would be able to grow plants on Mars.
Tim Peake has explained how the experiment, run jointly by the Royal Horticultural Society and the British Space Agency, will work in this video, filmed on the International Space Station.
Pupils will monitor the growth of the seeds, and take regular measurements of the seedlings so that any differences between 'space' and 'earth' seeds can be analysed.
Watch the full report from our correspondent, Frances Read: