The Tyne Tunnels are celebrating 50 years since their official opening.
The first vehicle tunnel was opened by the Queen on 19th October 1967.
The Tunnels allow vehicles to cross under the River Tyne, providing a link between North Yorkshire and Northumberland.
The first tunnel, now the northbound tunnel, is 1650 metres long and more than 30 metres below the river.
The idea of an under-river crossing was first conceived in the 1920s by engineer FW Chalmes, who planned a tunnel that would house an electric monorail under the Tyne, with a wider tunnel to allow cars and buses to travel by train.
Prior to the tunnel opening, commuters needed to travel seven miles upriver to cross via a bridge, or to use the Tyne ferry.
The first vehicular Tyne Tunnel was opened by Her Majesty the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh. The ceremony lasted two and a half hours and involved many local dignitaries including the Duchess of Northumberland, the Mayor and Mayoress of Newcastle, the Bishop of Newcastle, and many local politicians.
Once Her Majesty had declared the tunnel open, there followed a 21 Gun Royal Salute, fired by a battery of the Royal Artillery (Volunteers).
She then traveled through the tunnel to greet the public waiting at the southern side.
The Tyne Tunnels have come a long way in the past 50 years, including the opening of a second vehicular tunnel in 2011, allowing for a dedicated northbound and southbound crossing. The first road crossing has undergone significant modernisation to ensure it meets the European safety standards and is fitted with safety equipment to ensure it can run all day, every day.
Lined in cast iron, it has a drainage system, fire safety equipment, ventilation, and cameras to monitor the traffic.