A jury has heard how a man was bludgeoned to death by 15 blows to the head.
A pathologist told Teesside Crown Court that John Coates had three skull fractures caused by "something heavy like a hammer".
The 61-year-old was found dead in his flat in Middlesbrough last September.
The jury was also told the blows would have knocked him unconscious and caused heavy blood loss.
24-year-old Robert Baker denies his murder.