A vigil by supporters of women bishops was held on the steps of Church House today.
Margaret Houston, a children's worker at a church in west London, said the vigil was organised last night on Twitter "by people who feel very strongly that they want to register their sadness over this decision".
"We represent the majority who are in favour of women bishops", she added.
The Rev Preb Pat Hawkins, a General Synod member from Wolverhampton, said she was "very sad" that the legislation was not approved.
"I think we need to be clear that it was not the Church of England voting against the principle of women bishops, it was voting on a very particular measure", she added.
Rachel Jepson, a lay member of the General Synod from Birmingham, said the defeat was "appalling" and "shameful".
"I am quite disgusted, really", she added.