- Garden cities were conceived by Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928).
- His plan was for limited-size cities built on municipally owned low-cost agricultural land.
- Each city would offer the benefits of urban living without the crowding and squalor of the Victorian city.
- The centre of each city would be a garden, ringed by civil and cultural amenities, city hall, museum, library, and theatre.
- Howard envisaged clusters of garden cities, linked by railways, and powered by new low-pollution electricity.
- Prototype garden cities were built at Letchworth from 1903 and Welwyn from 1919, greatly influencing the new towns built after the Second World War.
Sources: Oxford Dictionary of Geography and Oxford Dictionary of British History.