Many of the victims died as they jumped from the building to escape the flames, a police official said, while witnesses added the death toll could rise.
The cause of the blaze was not immediately clear.
Bangladesh has around 4,500 garment factories that make clothes for brands including Tesco, Wal-Mart, JC Penney, H&M, Marks & Spencer, Kohl's and Carrefour.
Ready made garments make up 80 percent of the country's $24 billion annual exports.
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