Amnesty International has accused the Malian army of committing serious human rights abuses, and violations of international humanitarian law, including executing civilians.
The evidence was uncovered during a ten-day research trip to the country.
Amnesty says Islamist armed groups have committed serious human rights violations, including unlawful killing and the recruitment of child soldiers.
The organisation also says there is evidence of that civilians, including children, were killed in an airstrike carried out by French-led forces.
Researcher Gaëtan Mootoo said: