The Queen told MPs and peers that an Immigration Bill will aim to "ensure that this country attracts people who will contribute and deters those who will not".
Measures will regulate migrant access to the NHS and ensure that temporary visitors make a contribution, prevent illegal immigrants from obtaining driving licences, introduce tougher fines for businesses using illegal labour and require private landlords to check the immigration status of tenants.
The Bill will make it easier to remove people from the UK, limiting rights to appeal against deportation and specifying that all foreign nationals convicted of serious crimes will be removed except in "extraordinary circumstances".
Legal force will be given to changes to rules announced by Mrs May to prevent the abuse of the right to family life by those seeking to avoid deportation.
Although the Speech was finalised before the UK Independence Party's surge at the expense of Conservatives in last week's council elections, the focus on immigration will be seen as a response to growing public concerns which the Eurosceptic party has highlighted.
Nigel Farage said the focus on immigration and aspiration in the Queen's Speech showed that UKIP is "changing the UK national debate."
The Government has put new attempts to curb immigration at the heart of its agenda for the coming year, set out in today's Queen's Speech.
'Progress Please' probably best sums up business groups' polite but rather firm response to the Queen's speech.