Some of the poorest areas of the UK are becoming "men deserts" because there are so few visible male role models for children, a report by the Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) suggests.
One of the problems is there are so few male teachers in primary schools, the independent think tank said.
It noted that one in four primary schools in England and Wales has no male teacher and 80 percent have fewer than three.
The report found that Liverpool has one of the highest densities fatherless households in the country, with eight of the top 20 areas within its boundaries.
In the ward of Riverside, there are no fathers in 65 percent of households with dependent children.
In Sheffield's Manor Castle ward, 75 percent of households are headed by a lone parent, most commonly a woman.