The department's plans for Universal Credit were driven by an ambitious timescale, and this led to the adoption of a systems development approach new to the department.
The relatively high risk trajectory was not, however, matched by an appropriate management approach. Instead, the programme suffered from weak management, ineffective control and poor governance.
Universal Credit could well go on to achieve considerable benefits if the department learns from these early setbacks and puts realistic plans and strong discipline in place for its future roll-out.
Government attempts to set up Universal Credit scheme have already wasted £34 million according to a damning National Audit Office report.
Universal Credit is to replace six separate means-tested benefits. Here we look at how the changes will affect you.