An independent Scotland would face even tougher choices than those faced by the UK over the longer term.
In 2011–12, higher public spending per person in Scotland was more than matched by higher revenues from activity in the North Sea.
However, over the long-term, revenues from the North Sea will probably decline and official population projections suggest that the average age of the Scottish population will increase more rapidly than for the UK as a whole, putting greater upward pressure on many areas of public spending.
More top news
Accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen will attend the opening ceremony of the fifth session in the Holyrood chamber.
Ms Leadsom has received the backing of Ian Duncan Smith, the former work and pensions secretary.
The former shadow work and pensions secretary is considered a more viable candidate than Angela Eagle, a Labour source has told ITV News.