Motorists are feeling the pinch on the cost of parking, with four out of five drivers reporting price hikes in town and cities, the RAC has found.
The car insurer said 67% of the 1,526 drivers it spoke to believed parking was more sparse in their home town or city centre and restrictions had tightened.
Drivers pointed to parking charges pushing up the cost of a trip to town.
The RAC added London motorists, in particular, had "felt the pain" of increased parking costs, with 59% finding high street parking was hitting their pocket more.
RAC technical director David Bizley said: "Councils should be compelled to report where the money raised from parking goes - giving drivers assurance that it is being ploughed back into road and transport improvements, rather than just plugging budget holes elsewhere."
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Representatives for Scotland and Northern Ireland said they were concerned that they will be pulled out of the EU by English voters.
This is not hyberbole.