Further research is "urgently needed" to set up a successful screening process in order to prevent prostate cancer, a leading scientist has said.
Professor Fritz Schroder, who lead a major study into prostate screening, said more research was needed to reduce the number of men "screened, biopsied, and treated".
PSA screening delivers a substantial reduction in prostate cancer deaths, similar or greater than that reported in screening for breast cancer.
However, over-diagnosis occurs in roughly 40% of cases detected by screening resulting in a high risk of over-treatment and common side-effects such as incontinence and impotence.
The time for population-based screening has not arrived.
Further research is urgently needed on ways to reduce over-diagnosis preferably by avoiding unnecessary biopsy procedures, and reducing the very large number of men who must be screened, biopsied, and treated to help only a few patients.