Michael Vaughan hopes Ben Stokes is "hurting more than the team in the dressing room" after England surrendered the Ashes following their latest defeat in Perth.
Stokes' absence has lingered over England's tour, which hit another low when they crashed to an innings-and-41-run loss to Australia, who took an unassailable 3-0 lead in the five-match series.
The talismanic all-rounder has been suspended by England until the resolution of a criminal investigation into his arrest on suspicion of causing actual bodily harm following a late-night fracas outside a Bristol nightclub in September.
He has been cleared to compete by the England and Wales Cricket Board in New Zealand's domestic limited-overs competitions, but his international team-mates have toiled badly without him in Australia.
And Ashes 2005-winning captain Vaughan told BT Sport 1: "I would hope that Ben Stokes was watching and I would hope that he's hurting more than the team in the dressing room.
"As soon as Ben Stokes did what he did, it was very clear to me he was going to struggle to be in Australia. I said it straight away that I didn't think England would have any chance without Ben Stokes."
Former England batsman Geoffrey Boycott questioned whether his presence would have had any impact on the result, and Vaughan replied: "No it wouldn't but I hope he's hurting more than the players that have been here."