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Proton beam therapy is a form of treatment which uses sub atomic particles (protons) to target cancers.
Its advantage is that it can be focussed more narrowly on diseased tissue.
Conventional radiotherapy can damage surrounding tissue.
The proton beam damages the DNA of cancer cells which are particularly vulnerable to the treatment because they divide so quickly and have a reduced ability to repair the DNA damage.
South Wales could become the home of the UK's first proton beam therapy treatment centre which helps treat the most complex and hard-to-reach cancers.
The centre, due to open at Celtic Springs Business Park, Newport, by 2016, will see Wales leading the way in the treatment.
There are currently only 40 therapy centres around the world.
The potential centre has been described as a 'significant inward investment to Wales' that will 'save lives on Welsh soil'.
Proton beam therapy provides a highly targeted radio therapy and has been described as a so-called 'miracle' treatment. It's estimated that by 2017 the NHS demand for proton beam therapy will reach 1,500 patients.
Currently people have to go abroad for the treatment, including two-year-old Freya Bevan, from Swansea, who suffers with a rare brain tumour.
Proton therapy also helped saved the life of Ashya King who was recently declared cancer-free after proton beam therapy in Prague.