Cardiff has been named as the worst place in Wales to park and the third worst in Britain.
The city is in a list compiled by insurance firm Privilege based on the number of parking tickets issued, the length of time spent looking for a space and the frequency that vehicles suffer parking-related damage.
Birmingham was top of the list followed by Manchester, Cardiff and Bristol.
London was fifth.
Some 2,000 UK adults were interviewed for the research.
A South Wales MP is campaigning for drivers to be protected from high car park penalty charges. Blaenau Gwent MP Nick Smith is also warning against personal driver registration details being sold on or passed into the wrong hands.