Patients and visitors at hospitals in Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan could face fines for dropping litter, as council enforcement officers are being brought in.
Cardiff and Vale University Health Board is the first in Wales to allow enforcement officers onto its sites.
Council staff will be able to fine individuals £75 for dropping litter as the health board looks for ways to tackle rubbish, especially cigarette butts, on its sites.
Enforcement officers will also be handing out health board information on giving up smoking in a bid to stop people smoking on hospital grounds. They will be on patrol from Monday.