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Final submissions have been heard at the inquest into the death of a teenager from Salisbury, who was killed by a polar bear on an expedition to Norway.
The coroner is expected to record his verdict next Friday.
Today should be the last day that evidence will be heard at an inquest into the death of a teenager from Salisbury who was killed by a polar bear.
Horatio Chappel was on an expedition in Norway when the animal attacked him in August 2011.
The inquest has heard how the trip wire system that was meant to scare off the bears was not good enough.
The trip leader, who shot dead the polar bear, also told the inquest how his rifle failed to fire when the animal began to attack the group.
The trip leader of an expedition to the Arctic Circle in which a 17-year-old boy was mauled to death by a polar bear has told an inquest how he wrestled with the predator as it attacked him after his rifle failed to fire.
Spike Reid from Plymouth told the inquest he was woken up by shouts of "bear attack". He remembers the huge animal biting his head - he then tried unsuccessfully to gouge out the bear's eyes.
Eventually he shot the polar bear. Another teenager on the trip, also from Plymouth, was injured in the terrifying attack in 2011.
Martin Dowse reports:
The leader of the expedition on which a boy was killed by a polar bear has told an inquest the group had been supplied with an incomplete tripwire system.
The missing materials meant they had to set it up in a triangle formation rather than the advised rectangular shape, 31-year-old Michael Reid said.
He explained that his group also had to improvise using a paper clip to modify the trigger system because the brass fittings were missing.
He said: "The tripwire system in base camp worked inconsistently, the system that we tested at the ice-climbing camp on our first or second night out from the base camp operated 100% when we tested it."
The trip leader of an expedition in which a 17-year-old boy was mauled to death by a polar bear has told an inquest how he wrestled with the predator as it attacked him after his rifle failed to fire.
Horatio Chapple was on an adventure holiday to the remote Svalbard islands in August 2011 with the British Schools Exploring Society when he died.
The Eton pupil, from Salisbury was sleeping in his tent when the bear went on the rampage, inflicting fatal injuries to his head and upper body.
Four others were hurt before the bear was shot dead at the camp site, where the group, known as Chanzin Fire, had been staying.
Also injured were Andrew Ruck, 27, from Brighton, 17-year-old Patrick Flinders, from Jersey, and 16-year-old Scott Bennell-Smith, from St Mellion in Cornwall.
Trip leader Michael Reid, known as Spike, from Plymouth, Devon, told the Salisbury inquest that he was awoken by several people shouting "bear attack". He then grabbed the group's rifle and left his tent.
Mr Reid said he had no recollection of seeing Horatio during the incident but went on to pay tribute to the youngster.
He said: "He was a member of our team, one of the best in our team if not the best in the whole expedition.
"He was a fine young gentleman with amazing potential, I enjoyed being on the expedition with him."
Mr Reid said a bear watch could have been held on the night of the attack but it would have left the team tired and left them vulnerable to cold-related illness during the coming day's planned long trek.
He said: "There were shouts of 'bear', or 'bear attack', male voices, from more than one person. Immediately I exited the tent through one of the doors with the rifle.
"The only priority was getting out as swiftly as possible and taking the rifle with me as this was a serious situation."
He continued: "The bear was close and it was on top of one of the YEs (young explorers) in their sleeping bags. I believe it was Scott Bennell-Smith.
"I was not focussing on other people other than the bear that was on top of person on the ground. I do not recall seeing Horatio.
"I cocked the rifle, took aim, aimed it carefully as I didn't want to shoot the YE, although it was close I didn't want to injure the YE or worse.
"So I took a carefully aimed shot at the bear in the chest area of the bear but the rifle didn't fire. I cocked the rifle again and took another attempt at an aimed shot at the bear.
"I do not know why this failure was happening and so I carried on this until the magazine was empty.
"The bear was very close so I was able to get a clear aim."
Describing how the bear then turned on him, Mr Reid said: "The bear then came and attacked me because the rifle was then on the ground beside me.
"I shouted 'Use your pen rounds' event though I hadn't briefed the others where they were stored overnight, and although they are not safe to use (in close quarters) they are better than this bear carrying on.
"I remember the bear biting my head and I thought the weakest part is the eyes so I tried to take out the eyes with my fingers, but was unsuccessful.
"Once it had moved off me I then recall asking 'Where is my rifle?' and someone said 'It's in your tent' and I found it there.
"With one of the rounds that was on the ground having been ejected, I cocked the rifle and fired the round at the bear as it was attacking someone else."
He said that this time the weapon worked and fired a shot at the bear.
The inquest has heard that the Mauser 98K rifle had a three-position safety catch mechanism which meant that rounds could be ejected if fired with the catch in the highest position.
Mr Reid said that he was unaware of this at the time and did not know which position the catch had been in at the time.
He said: "From the reports I have read, there's a chance that the safety catch had got up in that position."
An independent report has been published today, giving harrowing details of how a schoolboy was killed by a polar bear on a camping expedition.
Four others were injured, including a 16-year-old from Devon and 29-year-old Mike Reid, an expedition leader from Plymouth, who desperately tried to shoot the animal.
The report co-incides with the opening of the inquest, from where Andrew Pate reports:
The inquest of a boy who was killed by a polar bear while on a school trip abroad is due to begin today. 17 year old Horatio Chapple died during an expedition in Norway. Plymouth adventurer Michael "Spike" Reid was one of four people who was injured on the trip in August 2011.
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