Dog walkers can now be fined £100 if they leave the house without a poop bag regardless of whether their pet fouls.
Daventry District Council in Northamptonshire, who introduced the new powers, said owners should have to prove how they would clean up after their dogs to cut down on the problem of fouling.
Those who fail to pay the £100 fine could face a penalty of up to £1,000 if the case is taken to court.
Mike Warren, health and housing portfolio holder for the council, said making sure dog owners carry bags is not "unreasonable".
The two council enforcement officers in the district council will not have powers of stop and search but under the new Public Space Protection Order it will be an offence not to produce a bag when asked.
The council added fines "are not in place as a money-making scheme" and that 73% of the 834 people who responded to a consultation said they were in favour of the plan.
Lee Paris, campaigns officer at Dogs Trust, said the approach was "a sledgehammer to crack a nut".