Councils in England made a record surplus from parking charges of almost £700m last year, according to a new study.
Research from the RAC Foundation found local authorities made £693 million after running costs were removed in 2014/15 - up £667m on the year before.
But the Local Government Association (LGA) described the report as "misleading" saying any extra money is spent on transport projects. The RAC Foundation has urged more transparency over "exactly where this huge excess ends up".
The organisation analysed parking data in financial reports from English councils.
The councils with the 10 largest parking surpluses, according to the RAC Foundation are listed below.
- Westminster £46.4 million
- Kensington and Chelsea £33 million
- Camden £24.5 million
- Hammersmith and Fulham £23.8 million
- Wandsworth £20.4 million
- Brighton and Hove £18.6 million
- Haringey £16.1 million
- Islington £13.7 million
- Nottingham City £13.3 million
- Hackney £10.8 million
A spokesman for the LGA said the report was "inaccurate adding: "Councils are on the side of hard-pressed motorists."