A new report by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has reportedly concluded that there was no way members of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Council, could have been unaware of the extent of doping and non-enforcement of the rules in athletics.
The council included current president Sebastian Coe, who served as vice-president between 2007 and 2015.
According to the Associated Press, who have seen documents related to the latest report before its publication on Thursday, former IAAF president Lamine Diack told a lawyer he would need to cut a deal with Russian President Vladimir Putin to ensure nine Russian athletes accused of doping would not compete at 2013 world championships in Moscow.
The report by WADA president Dick Pound, is said to conclude that the IAAF needs to be restructured to ensure corruption cannot go unchecked.
The corruption "cannot be blamed on a small number of miscreants", he is said to have written.
"The corruption was embedded in the organisation,” the report is expected to say. "It cannot be ignored or dismissed as attributable to the odd renegade acting on his own.”
It follows earlier reports this week that in 2009, tests conducted at the world championships, where Russia won 13 medals, "strongly suggested a systematic abuse of blood doping or EPO-related products".
Then IAAF general secretary, Pierre Weiss, is reported to have written that some athletes "recorded some of the highest values ever seen since the IAAF started testing", in a letter to the Russian athletics president Valentin Balakhnichev.
Mr Balakhnichev was banned from sport last week for breaching anti-doping rules.
IAAF spokesman Chris Turned confirmed to the AP news agency the letters were genuine and were a "clear, open warning" to Russia and insisted the body has been "very strong" in dealing with the federation.
Other key findings are said to include:
- Internal papers before the 2012 London Olympics that show the IAAF proposed "discreet" handling of doping cases for less well-known Russian athletes, resulting in their removal from competition for two years.
- An internal brief for then-IAAF President Lamine Diack is said to have estimated that 42% of tested Russian elite athletes doped in 2012.
In November, the Russian athletics federation was provisionally banned from international competition after another WADA report alleging state-sponsored doping and mass corruption.
On Wednesday, Lord Coe told ITV News he wished he did more to stamp out doping while he was vice-president.
He admitted: "I wish we had reduced the walls. Should we have intervened earlier? Possibly, but it's difficult to see how."
Lord Coe also insisted he would not be afraid to bring sanctions against any nations found to have cheated.
"The overwhelming principle here has to be to get the cheats out of the sport as quickly as we can."