Just one in six Britons feel well informed about the EU referendum, according to a new poll.
The finding has sparked fears that few voters will bother to turn up to cast their ballots on June 23.
The survey, commissioned by the Electoral Reform Society, found that women and young voters feel less informed than male and older voters, and comes after criticism that men are dominating the referendum debate.
The campaign said the survey should be a "wake-up call" to politicians to shake-up the discussion about the referendum and talk about the real issues.
The poll of 1,517 Britons found that just 12% feel well informed, while a further 4% feel very well informed about the June vote.
While nearly half (46%) feel poorly or very poorly informed about it.
This falls to just over a third (38%) among those who say they will definitely vote in the referendum, and rises to nearly two thirds (61%) among those who say they probably will not vote - suggesting a link between how much people feel they know about the debate and how likely they are to vote.
Older voters are far more likely to feel confident about the issues than their younger counterparts. A fifth (21%) of 55-64 year-olds feel well informed about the referendum compared to just 10% of 18-24 year-olds.
Men are also twice as likely to feel well informed than women, with 21% of men saying this compared to just 10% of women.
The Electoral Reform Society, which is launching a programme of work on the referendum, has made five recommendations in a bid to invigorate the debate.
It is calling for the Remain and Leave campaigns to commit to taking part in televised debates, to make voter registration a key plank of their plans, and to support initiatives to give citizens a chance to debate the issues.
It also calls for the campaigns to commit to a "ceasefire week", where both sides only put out the positive cases for their arguments.
And the media, public bodies and NGOs should commit to providing balanced coverage of the debate, including clear and comprehensible facts on Britain's relationship with the EU, the society said.