One in five jobs in British cities are under threat of being lost by 2030 because of automation and globalisation, a new report has predicted.
Retail, customer service and warehouse jobs are among those most at risk, the Centre for Cities said.
The think tank said struggling cities in the North and Midlands were more exposed to job losses than wealthier cities in the South, which could compound the North/South divide.
Mansfield, Sunderland and Wakefield could see two out of five jobs lost, while Oxford and Cambridge face losing 13%, the study found.
The report also said the changes would lead to jobs being created as well as lost, but in Northern and Midlands' cities they would largely be in low-skilled occupations.
The top 10 cities most at risk of job losses ( in rank order)
The report also predicts a boost in jobs across the country, with one in 10 in occupations expected to grow, while new industries would bring positions which do not currently exist, it said.
Andrew Carter, chief executive of Centre for Cities, said: "Automation and globalisation will bring huge opportunities to increase prosperity and jobs, but there is also a real risk that many people and places will lose out.
He called for the education system to be reformed to help give young people the skills they need to thrive in the future.
"We also need greater investment in lifelong learning and technical education to help adults adapt to the changing labour market, and better retraining for people who lose their jobs because of these changes."