More than 18,000 parking tickets are being handed to British drivers every day, new figures show.
Each penalty charge can cost drivers up to £100.
Some 1.7 million vehicle keeper records were requested by parking management firms in the second quarter of 2018/19, according to RAC Foundation analysis of Government data.
This is the highest total on record for one quarter and represents a 20% increase year-on-year.
Parking companies obtain records from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) to chase vehicle owners for alleged infringements in private car parks such as at shopping centres, leisure facilities and motorway service areas.
A Private Member’s Bill which would lead to the introduction of a code of conduct for private car park operators is back before Parliament on Friday.
The Government has committed to supporting Tory former minister Sir Greg Knight’s Parking (Code of Practice) Bill, which is at the report stage in the Commons.
RAC Foundation director Steve Gooding said: "Parking should be an inconsequential act with the system working for both drivers and land owners. But yet again we see numbers that suggest the relationship is going badly wrong.
"It is surely inconceivable that 18,000 drivers a day are knowingly setting out to ignore parking rules and attract penalties of up to £100.
"Frankly we think Sir Greg Knight’s Private Member’s Bill can’t come into law too soon, bringing the era of self-regulation of private parking to a close with firms having to abide by a code of practice signed off by ministers."
The DVLA charges private firms £2.50 per record.
The agency says its charges are set to recover the cost of providing the information and it does not make any money from the process.
Here are the number of vehicle keeper records obtained from the DVLA by parking management companies since 2006/07:
5.65 million in 2017/18
4.71 million in 2016/17
3.67 million in 2015/16
3.06 million in 2014/15
2.43 million in 2013/14
1.89 million in 2012/13
1.57 million in 2011/12
1.17 million in 2010/11
1.03 million in 2009/10
687,000 in 2008/09
499,000 in 2007/08
272,000 in 2006/07