How did we get to Brexit and what happens next?

David Cameron resigned after the UK voted for Brexit. Credit: PA

Britain’s scheduled departure from the EU is less than three months away.

Here are some of the key milestones witnessed on the road to Brexit day:

  • June 23, 2016

The UK votes for Brexit in the EU referendum by 51.9% to 48.1%, prompting the then-prime minister David Cameron to resign and be replaced by Theresa May.

  • January 17, 2017

Mrs May gives a speech at Lancaster House setting out the Government’s 12-point "Plan for Britain" and her negotiating red lines, ruling out membership of the EU’s single market and customs union.

  • March 29, 2017

The PM triggers Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which formally kick-starts a two-year countdown to the UK exiting the EU.

Theresa May retained her seat but lost her parliamentary majority in 2017. Credit: PA
  • June 8, 2017

After calling a snap general election to increase her authority, the PM loses her parliamentary majority and has to make a deal with the DUP to stay in power.

  • December 13, 2017

Rebel Tory MPs inflict a major defeat on the Government, forcing them to guarantee the Commons a vote on the final Brexit deal.

  • December 15, 2017

Two days later the first part of the negotiations is completed after a deal is reached on the "divorce bill", and the so-called Northern Irish "backstop" is first agreed upon.

  • March 2, 2018

Mrs May gives her second big Brexit speech, this time at Mansion House, outlining her "five tests" for the UK’s future economic partnership with the EU.

  • March 19, 2018

A draft Withdrawal Agreement is published, which Michel Barnier and David Davis call a "decisive step" in the Brexit process, setting out the transition period, citizens’ rights and plans for fishing.

Theresa May speaks during a cabinet meeting at Chequers, the Prime Minister's official country residence near Ellesborough in Buckinghamshire. Credit: PA
  • July 6, 2018

After the The European Union (Withdrawal) Bill becomes law at the end of June, Mrs May takes her Cabinet to Chequers to sign off a collective position for the future Brexit negotiations with the EU.

  • July 9, 2018

Brexit Secretary David Davis resigns over the so-called "Chequers Plan" to be replaced by Dominic Raab, with Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson following him out of Cabinet several days later.

  • September 20, 2018

At a meeting of European leaders in Salzburg, the PM was delivered a blow as they rejected her proposals out of hand, and EU Council boss Donald Tusk mocked her on Instagram.

Donald Tusk posts a picture with Theresa May captioned with a sly putdown about Brexit cherry-picking. Credit: Instagram/Donald Tusk
  • November 25, 2018

A 599-page draft Withdrawal Agreement is published after unanimous approval by the EU, but the terms of the backstop to prevent a hard border in Ireland spark anger among Brexiteers and the DUP.

  • December 10, 2018

Mid-way through a five-day debate on the Brexit deal, as it became clear she would lose heavily, Mrs May pulls the vote and postpones it until the week of January 14, 2019.

  • December 12, 2018

In response, enough discontented Tory MPs write letters of no confidence to reach the threshold for a vote in her leadership, which she wins by 200 to 117 the following day.

May delivers a speech before the meaningful vote in Stoke-on-Trent on Monday January 14. Credit: PA
  • December 19, 2018

The European Commission starts implementing its "no deal" Contingency Action Plan, covering 14 areas where UK withdrawal without a deal would create "major disruption for citizens and businesses" in the remaining 27 EU states.

  • January 9, 2019

After returning from the Christmas break, MPs begin five days of debate on the PM’s deal.

The PM in the House of Commons. Credit: PA
  • January 14, 2019

Mr Tusk and European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker release a letter offering "clarifications" to the withdrawal agreement.

  • What happens next?

Theresa May's Brexit deal was overwhelmingly defeated in Parliament on Tuesday evening by a majority of 230.

Reacting to the result, Mrs May said: "The House has spoken and the Government will listen."

Jeremy Corbyn described the defeat as "catastrophic", and said that Labour would table a vote of no-confidence in the government, which would be discussed in parliament on Wednesday.