Parks, who played a central role in the fight against segregation in 1950s America by refusing to give up her seat in the 'white section' of a bus, is modelled wearing period costume, complete with clutch bag and spectacles.
Astronaut Sally Ride flew to space in 1983 - and, at the age of 32, she remains the youngest US astronaut.
The dolls are part of Mattel's new Barbie series called Inspiring Women.
Each comes with educational material about their lives and the lasting impact the women made.
The series, according to Mattel, features “courageous women who took risks, changed rules and paved the way for generations of girls to dream bigger than ever before”.
The dolls, which went on sale on Monday, cost just under $31 (£25).
Other women featured in the new range include Katherine Johnson, a mathematician who played a vital role in Nasa's space programme, Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic and Mexico-born painter Frida Kahlo.