From next month, selected chemists in England, will begin rolling out the "rapid detection service", which will include cholesterol and blood pressure checks, along with testing to search for irregular heartbeats.
If successful, the NHS programme will be broadened to every pharmacy in England by 2022.
"Heart disease and strokes dramatically cut short lives, and leave thousands of people disabled every year, so rapid detection of killer conditions through high street heart checks will be a game-changer," said NHS national medical director Professor Stephen Powis.
Heart attacks and strokes could be prevented within a decade under the new initiative
"Reducing lifestyle risks and treating high-risk conditions such as smoking, obesity, poor diet and physical inactivity are key to preventing serious ill-health, and the NHS Long Term Plan will help people take positive action for their own well-being, while investing in life-changing services, close to home, when ill-health hits."
The plan, which will also aid GPs in work on early detection of heart disease, is part of a £4.5 billion package of extra investment in primary and community care.